Anti-tax Avoidance: Transfer Pricing via Intangible Assets

Posted by on February 26, 2013 under Anti-Avoidance, Transfer Pricing | Be the First to Comment

It is reported that Guangdong Provincial Office of State Administration of Taxation succeeded in dealing with a transfer pricing case about a large retail enterprise after two years investigation. In this case, the tax authority finally adjusted the retail enterprise’s taxable income by increasing 198 million RMB, which leaded to the company paying back taxes amounting to 60 million RMB. In fact, this is the first anti-avoidance case in China concerning intangible assets such as trademark, goodwill, etc. After several rounds of investigations and negotiations, the retail enterprise eventually accepted the adjustments proposed by the tax authority and agreed not to deduct the expenses on goodwill with respect to its related parties, which could amount to over 100 million RMB. After the adjustments, the amount of the retail enterprise’s related tractions decreased by 60% and the enterprise’s profit improved significantly.
1. Long-term losses or low profits may lead to anti-tax avoidance adjustments
In 2009, Guangdong Provincial Office of SAT found that the sales revenues of the retail enterprise kept increasing each year, however, its profits didn’t increase correspondingly. After detailed investigation, the tax authority discovered that the company’s administrative expenses expanded dramatically which resulted in the low profits. In fact, since 2004, the company has made several payments to its foreign related companies via royalties and consulting services fees, which reached 1% of the company’s annual sales income each year. This raised the tax authority’s attention and caused the anti-tax avoidance investigation by the authority.
In practice, long-term losses or low profits are always important indicators which may actually raise the local tax authorities’ attentions. And many anti-tax avoidance cases began with such unusual financial indicators. Therefore, Hwuason Lawyers suggest that company shall pay special attentions to its financial indicators and their relations, such as sales revenue, profits, amount of related transactions, etc.
2. Emphasize on the preparation of contemporaneous documentations
According to Implementation Measures for Special Tax Adjustments (Trial), enterprises shall prepare and provide their contemporaneous documentations on their related transactions to the tax authorities.
Generally speaking, contemporaneous documentations mainly consist of five important parts, namely organizational structure; business operation briefing, related transactions briefing, comparability analysis and selection of transfer pricing methods. Moreover, each of the five parts in such report has a number of detailed requirements. Therefore, contemporaneous documentations actually contain various materials involving all aspects of company’s related transactions. And their preparation process is quite complex and contains many professional analysis which are highly technical.
As for some companies, they are not aware of the importance of contemporaneous documentations. They think they have already submitted the required documents and that is enough. However, on the contrary, contemporaneous documentations are important approaches for tax authorities to acquire necessary information. And tax authorities may rely on these reports to conduct their further investigations if they discover something unusual in the reports. Therefore, we suggest the company attach great importance on the preparation of contemporaneous documentations. And if the company happens to experience unusual changes or huge fluctuations, it shall provide adequate explanations to such phenomenon so as to reduce potential risks of being inspected or adjusted by the tax authorities.
3. Avoid transfer pricing risks via advance pricing arrangements
As we known, it is quite difficult for both companies and tax authorities to precisely assess and decide the value of certain intangible assets. And disputes may easily arise since both parties can hardly reach unanimous agreements on the pricing methods of intangible assets. In order to avoid potential transfer pricing risks and improve the certainty of business operation, Hwuason Lawyers suggest company struggle to reach advance pricing agreements if possible. And we believe that companies are likely to reach such agreements provided with positive attitude and adequate negotiations. In addition, since the provisions of tax laws regulating intangible assets are quite general and ambiguous, we suggest the company to maintain effective communications with the tax authorities and seek tax professionals’ advisories about some uncertain or controversial issues so as to ensure the compliance of related transactions.

For more information or advice on the above tax issues, please feel free to contact us by Tianyong Liu ( or Lingyan Hu ( You can visit our website at or our tax blog at

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Hwuason Lawyers, a prominent law firm with a focus on taxation, are committed to providing comprehensive tax law services including international tax, tax consulting, tax planning, tax incentives, tax controversy, etc. And we are granted ALB China Law Awards and Chambers China Awards respectively in 2012 for our excellent performance in taxation.

Joint Venture Becomes the Main Object of General Anti-Tax Avoidance Investigation

Posted by on September 27, 2012 under Anti-Avoidance, International tax | Be the First to Comment

Joint Venture Becomes the Main Object of General Anti-Tax Avoidance Investigation

 By Liu TianyongBeijing Hwuason Lawyers

Due to long term loss and scale expanding to the contrary, foreign invested enterprises have become one of SAT’S most important focuses recently. Known from general anti-tax avoidance in 2010, Join Venture has become the investigation core; taking Dalian anti-tax avoidance case, Kangshifu indirectly share transferring case in 2011 for examples.

The general feature of Join Venture is always like that: setting up in China according to PRC’law, part of the investment coming from overseas and certain control power held by foreigninvestors. Its ownership structure is much more complicated than WFOE and China domesticenterprise. And Chinese and foreign parties’ pooling the interests and sharing the risk makeJoin Venture a tool for both parties. Meanwhile, it is also qualified as a Chinese legal person innature, while intimately related with foreign investment, which makes its business modevaried.


Part one: The Reason Why Joint Venture Becoming the Main Investigating Target of General anti-tax avoidance


1. The development of legal system of revenue impacts tax status of Join Venture.

Joint Venture is one of the main forms for foreign investment. Thanks to loose economic policy and investment orientation over the years, foreign owned enterprises enjoy super-national treatment and other preferential policy, and there is not too much limitation concerning legality in business act out of legal sense. In the wake of building up Chinese national strength, market maturity and competitive situation between enterprises, it is necessary to create a more purified marketing environment. Chinese government revised a set of law and regulation, basically unified the parallel system, and adjusted all enterprise in various natures without discrimination. Till now, wholly foreign owned enterprises and Join Ventures have to relocate their marketing roles and restrain themselves with stricter new laws and regulations. In thissituation, if they are not able to adapt to the new business environment, it is possible for them to face tax risks

2. Both strengthening internal cooperation between government departments and developing bilateral anti-tax avoidance assist anti-tax avoidance investigation

Due to Join Venture’s complicated operating structure, outbound affiliated parties and mature trading mode, it is not easy for tax authority which is not experienced in transfer pricing to recognize during anti-tax avoidance period. While recently, a law-based and effective government has been built and the internal cooperation between departments and hierarchy has been strengthened, it is convenient for department to query valid information needed. The operating procedure is more and more transparent, and it is also hard to do some illegal operation. In this event, tax authority reasonably turns its main point to them.

Furthermore, international anti-tax avoidance cooperation is becoming global wide gradually but not regional. As far, China has signed bilateral tax treaty with over 100 countries and districts, which clearly regulated the measures in information exchange and mutual assistance in tax collection. More than that, many countries are using other legal system of revenue and OECD general standards for reference, following the development of international tax, in the purpose of unifying tax laws. In such a background, the scope for transnational enterprises to obtain tax interest grows more and more narrow.

3. It is sensitive for Join Venture to transfer equity

SAT issued GUOSHUIHAN [2009] No. 698, which explicitly put certain limitation on nonresident enterprises direct and indirect equity transferring. Out of operation strategy and other arrangement, in recent years it is more and more frequent for Join Venture to transfer its equity.

At the same time, foreign investment vehicle often choose to be set in low tax rate area or even tax heaven. Through arranging transfer pricing, they hardly pay tax in China. This situation make it fits with general anti-tax avoidance regulated in No.698. And it is comparatively easy to obtain internal information; therefore tax authority puts Join Venture as main objects in anti-tax avoidance recently.

Part two: EnterprisesCoping Mechanism in Current Situation

1. Join Venture should make a clear judgment for current situation, enhance self-checking, and take precautionary step SAT issued a series of normalizative documents of law such as Guoshuihan[2009]No.698, No.601, which cancelled Join Venture’s tax advantages, and focused its tax behavior. At present, enterprises should adjust its behavior on time according to those policies, strive for drawing close to the requirements of those normalizative documents of law and finish internal adjustment before possible investigation risk. Meanwhile, during the period of restructure and operation, enterprises should pay attention to its regulatory compliance, and take care of keeping files, records and accounting vouchers, so as to prepare for document submitting in the future.

2. Enterprise which wishes a long-term development should overweight internal communication and distribute profit reasonable.

Known from general anti-tax avoidance cases, the reason leading to Join Venture’s anti-tax avoidance often lies in their unmerited internal communication coordination. In the profit distribution, apart from certain investment profit both Chinese and foreign parties obtain from yearly profit distribution, Join Venture also takes advantages of related transaction with outbound parent company, such as disclosure fee, raw material purchasing and selling product to get some part of profits. This unequal status between two parties in the profit sharing mechanism leads to contradiction. Stimulating by other factors, it usually becomes the main conflict between the two investing parties. And the outcome of such conflict is to expose Join Venture’s drawback under public sight, and to provide clue and basis for tax authority to intervene.

3. There should be reasonable profit during enterprise management, and also a fair price between related parties’ transaction regardingassets, commodity and stock.

Joint Venture is easy to be doubted that they transfer profit out of China via its relationship. In this consideration, SAT targets those enterprises with long-term loss, meager profit and fluctuating profit but extended their operation range as main investigated object in Special Taxation Adjustment Implementation Regulation(Trial) . At the same time, local taxation authorities gave concrete figures on each industry’s average rate of profit and lowest profit index regarding to industrial characteristics. Enterprise may choose to maintain its profit rate within given amplitude range, so as to reduce doubtable point in tax avoidance and to prevent risk from investigation. Besides, trading behaviors between related party in asset, equity and commodity may refer to customs price, industry index, and marketing value to fix a price, and make it fit to the rules.


All rights reserved by the original copyright holder. The contents of this article are intended to provide a general guide to the subject matter and should not be treated as a substitute for specific advice concerning individual situations. Readers should seek legal advice before taking any action with respect to the matters discussed herein.


Liu Tianyong


Beijing Hwuason Lawyers – Senior Partner

Mr. Liu Tianyong is one of China’s most prominent tax lawyers, founding the first specialized tax law firm inChina. He is a Senior Partner at Hwuason and regularly advises both international and domestic clients on all aspects of Chinese tax law.

Mr. Liu Tianyong is also regularly interviewed by the media on China taxation and business issues. In the past he has undertaken interviews with organizations such as CCTV, Legal Daily, People’s Daily, China Taxation News, China Business, Economic Daily, Xinhua News Agency, and China Business News.


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 Hwuason Law Firm

Hwuason Law Firm( is the first professional Tax Law Firm established in China, which provides Tax Law Services encompassing Tax Consulting, Tax Plan, Tax Law Counseling and Tax Disputes Resolution. There are China Tax Department, International Tax Department, Company Law Department and Litigation Department under the Firm to support the careers.


Clients of Hwuason Law Firm cover hot industries as High-Technology, Real Estate, Finance, Petrochemical, Cultural Industry and Education. They get services such as cross-border investment tax, transfer pricing management, tax preference plan, disputes resolution, and M&A tax design, etc. With the professional services, Hwuason Law Firm has successfully helped the clients with limiting tax risks, cutting costs and raisingcompetitiveness.


HWUASON hosted the 2012 Conference on Risk-Based Audits taking place in Beijing

Posted by on September 6, 2012 under Anti-Avoidance, Hwuason News | Be the First to Comment

On August 15, 2012, HWUASON together with LexisNexis successfully held the 2012 conference on risk-based audits aJianguo Garden Hotel Beijing.

LexisNexis is a leading global provider of content-enabled workflow solutions designed specifically for professionals in the legal, risk management, corporate, government, law enforcement, accounting, and academic markets. The conference attracted more than 140 well-known companies, including Petro China Co Ltd and China Mech & Elect Co Ltd.


China recently released data showing a slowdown in its economy on a year-over-year basis. A less robust economy is more likely to motivate China’s tax authorities to collect together with monitor taxpayers’ key information. This is can be evidenced by the Beijing local tax bureau’s accouchement, that is ,more audits, more exams and more collection measures will be used to respond the current economic situation. By doing so, all companies in China are possibly facing greater chances of being audited by tax the taxation authorities. In order to help enterprises in China to get through the difficult time, HWUASON together with LexisNexis help this conference.

Summary of Conference 

The conference was made up of two parts. The part one was hosted by Wei Zhibiao, concentrated on making the general point about the 2012 tax audit trend and the corresponding strategies.  On the second part, Liu tianyong mainly looked at each relevant case and help those better understand the key problem of the mainstream.

Interpretation on the Status Quo of Anti-avoidance of Thin Capitalization and Relevant Laws and Regulations in 2012

Posted by on July 18, 2012 under Anti-Avoidance, International tax | Be the First to Comment

1.Tax authorities focus on the thin capitalization in anti-avoidance
Anti-avoidance, a major means to achieve fair taxation rights and interests and avoid profit transferring by enterprises, has been conducted frequently by developed countries and highly valued by developing countries. Currently, tax authorities in China has set up a well-established system for anti-avoidance which encompassing transfer pricing, APA, thin capitalization and controlled foreign enterprises.
SAT indicates that competent tax authorities would expand the areas of anti-avoidance from transfer pricing and APA to cost allocation agreements, controlled foreign enterprises, thin capitalization and GAAR. By the end of 2011, the first case of anti-avoidance of thin capitalization was closed, which reflects the new focus of anti-avoidance of competent tax authorities.
In early 2011, national taxation bureau in Shaanxi analyzed the accounting books of related enterprises and discovered that a Japanese company was involved in a lot of questionable points concerning taxation. Firstly, the debt-to-assets ratio of the enterprise was high and there existed a lot of related parties borrowing; secondly, the enterprise was in the situation of long-term loss while increasing capital constantly; thirdly, offshore banks offered substantial bank loan to the long-term loss enterprise under the joint and several guarantee of the parent company. Based on the abovementioned questionable doubt, preliminary judgment was made by national taxation bureau of Shaanxi that the enterprise was suspect of tax avoiding through thin capitalization. Further investigation to the enterprise indicated that the enterprise was also involved in other tax avoiding activities such as overseas related purchase, equity transfer and general anti-avoidance. The first anti-avoidance case of thin capitalization was launched upon the opening of investigation by SAT. After discussion, analysis and negotiation, the case was concluded with the finding that the enterprise paid the tax for RMB11million after special tax adjustment.
2. Relevant laws and regulations regarding anti-avoidance of thin capitalization
In recent years, thin capitalization, as a prominent means to avoid tax, results from the different treatment towards interests of debt and dividends of equity in accounting and taxation. The use of thin capitalization as a means to avoid tax is increasingly spread around the world along with the prospering of international capital market, which attracts great concern of tax authorities and gives rise to the legislation regarding anti-avoidance of thin capitalization.
With a view to preventing tax avoidance of enterprise through increasing debt investment and pre-tax deduction, provisions concerning thin capitalization are specified in relevant laws and regulations.
According to article 46 and 47 of Law of the People’s Republic of China on Enterprise Income Tax, the expenses incurred by an enterprise for payment of interest, due to the fact that the ratio of the bond or equity investment it receives from its affiliates is in excess of the prescribed norm, may not be deducted when it calculates the amount of its income taxable and Where an enterprise earns less taxable income or amount of income because it implements plans other than the ones designed to achieve reasonable business objectives, the taxation authority shall have the right to make adjustment in a reasonable way.
According to article 119 of Regulations on the Implementation of Enterprise Income Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China, “Debt investment”, as referred to in Article 46 of the Enterprise Income Tax Law, shall mean the financing that an enterprise directly or indirectly obtains from the related party but has to repay the principal and pay the interest or has to make compensation by other means in the nature of interest payment;
The debt investment an enterprise indirectly obtains from the related party shall include:
(1) the debt investment that a related party provides through an unrelated third party;
(2) the debt investment provided by an unrelated third and guaranteed by a related party that assumes joint and several liabilities; and
(3) other debt investment indirectly obtained through any related party in the nature of obligation assumption.
“Equity investment”, as referred to in Article 46 of the Enterprise Income Tax Law, shall mean the investment an enterprise accepts for which it does not have to repay the principal and pay the interest and of which the investor holds ownership over the net assets of the enterprise in question.
“Standards”, as referred to in Article 46 of the Enterprise Income Tax Law, shall be separately formulated by finance and taxation authorities of the State Council.
According to provisions of Notice of the Ministry of Finance and State Administration of Taxation on Taxation Policies Relating to the Standard for Pre-Tax Deduction of Interest Expense of Related Parties of the Enterprises, when calculating the taxable income, the interest expenses actually paid by the enterprise to the related party not exceeding the threshold specified below and in conformity with the relevant provisions of the Tax Law, and its Implementation Regulations shall be deductable. The excess portion shall not be deductible during the current period of occurrence and subsequent years.
Except when meeting the provisions of Clause 2 below, the interest expenses actually paid by the enterprise to the related party shall conform to the debt-to-equity ratio specified below:
(1) 5:1 for financial enterprises; and
(2) 2:1 for other enterprises.
If the enterprise can provide relevant materials in accordance with appropriate requirements of the “Tax Law” and its “Implementation Regulations” and prove that related trading activities conform to the principle of independent trading or that the actual tax burden of the enterprise is not greater than that of domestic related parties, the interest expenses actually paid by the enterprise to the domestic related parties shall be deductible when calculating the taxable income.
According to article 89 of Implementing Measures for Special Tax Adjustment (Trial),
to apply for the deduction of interest expenses when the associated party debt to equity ratio of the enterprise exceeds the standard ratio to be deducted from the taxable income, the enterprise shall, in addition to what is required pursuant to the relevant provisions in Chapter 3 hereof, prepare, reserve, and submit current materials based on the requirements of taxation authorities. It shall demonstrate that the debt investment amount, interest rate, term, financing conditions and debt to equity ratio are in line with the arm’s length principle by including the following contents:
(1) Analysis of the borrower’s solvency and borrowing capacity;
(2) Statement on the borrowing capacity and the financing structure of the group;
(3) Statement on any changes in equity investment, such as the enterprise’s registered capital;
(4) The nature, purpose, and market situation of the associated party debt investment;
(5) The currency, amount, interest rate, terms, and financing conditions of the associated party debt investment;
(6) The conditions and terms of the collateral provided by the enterprise;
(7) The conditions of guarantor and terms of the guarantee;
(8) The interest rate and financing conditions of loans of similar nature and terms;
(9) The conversion condition of the convertible bonds; and
(10) Other supporting documents that can prove the compliance with the arm’s length principle.
3. Interpretation on the measures regarding anti-avoidance of thin capitalization
Heads-up from international tax department of Hwuason:
1.How to define debt investment and equity investment?
Although article 119 of Regulations on the Implementation of Enterprise Income Tax Law of the People’s Republic of China has stipulated the definition of debt investment, with the invention of increasingly numerous financial instruments it is hard to define debt investment specifically and enterprises shall focus on the nature of the investment.
2. The treatment of an enterprise engaging in tow kinds of business
In accordance with relevant regulation, the interest expenses actually paid by the enterprise to the related party shall conform to the debt-to-equity ratio specified below: (1) 5:1 for financial enterprises; and (2) 2:1 for other enterprises. n case that the enterprise is engaged in both financial business and non-financial business, the interest expenses actually paid by the enterprise to the related party shall be calculated separately using a reasonable method; in case of failure to calculate separately using a reasonable method, the deductible pre-tax interest expenses shall be calculated in accordance with the proportion applicable to other enterprises specified in Clause 1 of Notice.of the Ministry of Finance and State Administration of Taxation on Taxation Policies Relating to the Standard for Pre-Tax Deduction of Interest Expense of Related Parties of the Enterprises.
3. Enterprises are facing an increased risk of anti-avoidance for thin capitalization
China taxation authorities have expanded the area of anti-avoidance inspection to related equity, intangible assets transfer and financing. Compared with complicated related transaction, such as intangible assets transfer and equity transfer, relevant laws and regulations have specified the ratio between related debt investment and related equity investment and enterprise involving in related financing shall disclose related information during the annual settlement. Therefore, competent taxation authorities could easily find the thin capitalization problem of enterprises in the taxation collection and management system and conduct further investigation. Hwuason lawyers advice enterprises with huge amount of related financing shall review the reasonableness of related transaction arrangements in order to decrease the risk of transfer pricing. Additionally, where enterprises intend to deduct the interests exceeding specified ratio, they shall prepare and keep CPT documentation upon the request of competent taxation authorities, proving related financing arrangement comply with arm’s length principle.
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Real Estate VAT introduces Transfer Pricing Mechanism in Anti-Tax Avoidance

Posted by on February 29, 2012 under Anti-Avoidance, Transfer Pricing | Be the First to Comment

In early 2012, real estate related VAT is listed as the priority of anti-avoidance assignments this year. The malpractice in land VAT has a long history due to the flexibility, long time span, and operationmode of real estate projects. One taxation official declared that the best performance of this anti-avoidance event, the government will collaborate with land managing authority, housing department. However, since the sales in housing market are declining, measures on anti-avoidance may also be amended.
1. Malpractice in Land VAT
Collective anti-avoidance event is not a macro-economic tool to regulate land VAT malpractice. Real estate enterprises used to avoid land VAT by falsify the development cost in their accounts. Land development cost, construction and installation cost, Property Company fees are typical malpractice. Through the development of real estate enterprises, this avoidance approach via related companies is no longer popular. It is more notable that real estate enterprises are avoiding taxation from exchange pricing. It is usually the case that Real Estate Company conceals or falsifies land price, presses real estate price or puts up evaluation prices, or decreases the project scope, costs and other fees to avoid tax in transactions.
2. Upgrade in the Inspections on land VAT
The business cycle in real estate companies is long and flexible. Consequently, respective project costs are various and complex. In general, the tax inspection is yearly based. But, real estate enterprises take developing projects is a longer time span and spurs over more than one administration units. Local taxation departments will strike hard to conduct through inspection. In the special collective anti-avoidance event, development cost, business tax account and additional business tax in related companies will be the focus of the land taxation bureaus.
Local leadership has implied inspections in “development cost” account, indirect cost among related companies, and development product account. For BT, taxation bureau should exam the installment payment plan in development product.
It is a creative policy to take land VAT into account in anti-avoidance actions. Real estate enterprises should be aware of such treatment in terms of any tax risks in the near future.